Member states communicated their frustration over the years that Iraq was impeding the work of the special commission and failing to take seriously its disarmament obligations.
Iraqi officials harassed the inspectors and obstructed their work, In October 1998, removing the Iraqi government became official U. foreign policy with enactment of the Iraq Liberation Act.
The US became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U. The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007. The US formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011.
An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first 3–4 years of conflict. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government; Saddam was captured during Operation Red Dawn in December of that same year and executed by a military court three years later. Many violent insurgent groups were supported by Iran and al-Qaeda in Iraq. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama.The al-Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions.In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies.This policy involved numerous economic sanctions by the UN Security Council; the enforcement of Iraqi no-fly zones declared by the US and the UK to protect the Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan and Shias in the south from aerial attacks by the Iraqi government; and ongoing inspections to ensure Iraq's compliance with United Nations resolutions concerning Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.The inspections were carried out by the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM).